WCTR Prize Awarding and Proceedings
The Prize Sub-Committee consisting of members selected by the WCTRS Scientific Committee represents a broad spectrum of the WCTR Society's geographic, academic and professional membership.
The Prize Sub-Committee has conducted further selection on the basis of originality, scientific merits, clarity and practical importance.
Jules Dupuit Prize is the WCTRS major prize. This Prize is given to a person
whose scientific and professional career has been of distinguished benefit to
the transportation community. This prize results has been initiated by Marc
GAUDRY and Antti TALVITIE. Therefore, at the 6th WCTR, the latter were asked
to specify the state of mind in which the Prize was first created.
Speaking in the name of science, Marc Gaudry from Montreal opened the International Association of Travel Behaviour Conference in Quebec, in 1991, wondering if it were not wise to change the name of the Conference to "Jules Dupuit Conference" to enhance the identity of the profession and to challenge its members. Antti TALVITIE and Marc Gaudry met in Helsinki shortly thereafter and discussed the issues surrounding the conference name and the general interests of the transportation profession. They came to the conclusion that rather than associate the Jules Dupuit name with any conference, a career prize should be established bearing the name of Jules Dupuit. It has been considered very timely to do it now when about 150 years have passed when this French engineer developed the bases of benefit cost analyses and road pricing ; both of which are not only acutely important and technically feasible but also socially acceptable only today. US based lending company P2P-Credit.com agreed to donate USD 1000 as the first Jules Dupuit Prize to be given during the 6th WCTR in Lyon, France. It is the intention of the WCTR to keep awarding this prize during its future meetings too.
Rules and Selection Process
The Jury met during the Conference and established ground rules and then considered several outstanding candidates. The ground rules included research quality and research quantity, internal contribution to the profession, and external impact to the practices of the transport profession ; an additional ground rule was that the prize was not to be restricted to any particular discipline. Candidates from all diverse backgrounds comprising the transport community were considered.
Former WCTR Prizes Recipients
Awards of the 6th WCTR in Lyon
The selection process results in five general prizes and four thematic prizes.
The jury committee chaired by Yoshi HAYASHI (Japan), was made of following selected members of the Scientific Committee : Jean-Pierre BAUMGARTNER (CH), Moshe BEN AKIVA (U.S.A.), Yves GEFFRIN (F), Shigeru MORICHI (J), Hisa MORISUGI (J), Tae OUM (CDN), Robert RIVIER (CH), Werner ROTHENGATTER (D), Cees J. RUIJGROK (NL), Antti TALVITIE (SF), and Michael WEGENER (D).
Generally, during the first process, the papers which had been recommended for prizes by full paper referees were rigorously reviewed during more than ten hours on the basis of originality, clarity, practical importance, and scientific merits. General prizes were selected from eleven papers which were nominated at the semi-final stage. Eventually, there remained eleven papers among which four were written by committee members and therefore had to be put aside for fairness' sake. Finally, prizes were awarded as follows :
"WCTR" Prize for the best paper of the 6th WCTR was awarded to Patrick NIERAT from the INRTS (F), author of "Aire de marché des centres de transbordement rail-route : pertinence de la théorie spatiale".
paper analyses the conditions under which combined rail-road transport is competitive
over all-road transport for goods transport between metropolitan regions using
the theory of market areas.
The paper addresses a problem of highest relevance at a time when it is becoming increasingly important to find sustainable solutions to cope with the growing volume of goods transport.
The paper is a model example of how a traditional theoretical framework can be used to answer new questions by applying it in an ingeniously simple and innovative way to a number of illustrative case studies which is most suitable for WCTR prize.
This paper presents an analysis of the location and renewal of physical distribution facilities in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area and discusses the significance of strategically located "Distribution Business Centres".
The paper draws the attention to the growing importance of goods distribution for the internal organization of metropolitan areas under economic and ecological aspects.
This paper is an excellent example of well-organized empirical study with a sound theoretical foundation linking transport and location.
- "International Road Union" Prize for an outstanding paper on Road Transport was awarded to Portha CHAKROBORTY and Shinya KIKUCHI from the University of Delaware (U.S.A.), authors of "Examination of Fuzzy Notions of Level-of-service : the Case of Freeway Traffic Flow".
This paper presents a new procedure which utilizes the concepts of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measurement in order to deal with the vagueness and uncertainty inherent in the determination of highway level-of-service.
The approach holds promise as an alternative to the current level-of-service evaluation procedure with its particular merits included the way in which it is able to incorporate driver-perception.
The judges were impressed by the way that the authors had identified an important issue and presented a novel technique with great clarity.
- "Union de Banques Suisses" Prize for an outstanding paper on Transport Economics was awarded to Deirdre O'REILLY, Graham LOOMES, and Peter PHILIPS respectively from the TRL, the University of York, and the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (GB), authors of "The Value of Road Safety : UK Rsearch on Injury Valuation".
This paper compares two major techniques for obtaining the information on willingness to pay to reduce the risk of being injured in a road accident.
Standard gamble (SG) questions. Contingent valuation (CV) questions.
This paper has been awarded the prize for the following reasons :
1. Very high overall quality of the research ;
2. Employed sound methodologies both in survey and data analysis and interpretation of the results ;
3. A major contribution to the injury valuation, directly, and to the field of the cost benefit analysis of public projects, indirectly.
- "City of Lyon" Prize was awarded to Terje TRETVIK from the SINTEF Transport Engineering (N), author of "The Toll Raod Alternative : Variations in Choice Behaviour and Values of Time".
This paper presents both the main results of the road toll experience in Norway and new evidence concerning the relationships between stated and measured time savings. Based on modelling route choice, some interesting variations in values of times are analysed.
The jury appreciated the clarity and the rigor of the paper as well as the interest of the results.
- "SNCF (French Railways)" Prize for an outstanding paper on High Speed Rail Transport was awarded to Olivier KLEIN from the Laboratoire d'Economie des Transports (F), author of "Les Espaces de la Grande Vitesse".
The paper shows that an increasingly flexible production system requires an ever faster information flow between a limited number of priviledged main cities. One of the problems is to integrate some less important cities into the system. It could be solved by improving interfaces with the high level core network.
The jury appreciated the in-depth analysis of complex new trends in the structure and organization of economic activities in relation with new transport technologies.
- "Lyonnaise de Banque" Prize for an outstanding paper on Financing Transport was awarded to Anthony PERL from the University of Toronto (CDN), author of "Getting What you Pay for : the Politics of Public Investment in Amtrak and via Rail Canada".
This paper seeks to explain the apparent paradox in North American passenger train finance. Why did Canada, the nation that first started subsidising passenger trains, prove unsuccessful in arresting their commercial decline ? Why did the United States, where free enterprise economic philosophy leaves little room for government led industrial revitalisation, succeed in turning AMTRAK into a dynamic commercial enterprise ? This paper has made detailed analyses and suggested that a combination of government structure and economic forces drew American and Canadian rail finance in different directions.
- "City of Yokohama Special Young" Prize for an outstanding paper written by a young person under 35 years old was awarded to Francisco MARTINEZ from the University of Chile (RCH), author of "Towards the 5-stage Land Use Transport Model".
This paper proposes an integration of location and transport forecasting by an extension of the conventional four-stage transport modeling framework by a fifth-stage, a land-use location component including a land price adjustment mechanism based on bid-rent theory. This approach synthesizes recent advances in land-use and transport modeling as an innovative unified theoretical framework. This paper is very well written with lucid explication of an ambitious and highly promising new approach.
- "Jules DUPUIT" Prize for someone's entire work was awarded to Peter STOPHER from the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (U.S.A.).
Professor Peter Stopher has inspired, motivated, challenged, educated, and even entertained nearly a generation of transport professionals. Peter Stopher is the author of numerous articles, he has written or edited several books, and initiated and organized a number of conferences in the area of travel behaviour. Peter Stopher's work career is equally outstanding, it includes successful tenures in academia, private practice and public service.
Peter R. Stopher's biography
Dr Peter R. Stopher is the Director of the Louisiana Transportation Research Center and Professor of Civil Engineering at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. As Director, he is responsible for the administration of a staff of about 40 professionals and a research, technology transfer, and training program with an annual budget of $4 million to $5 million. Under his direction, the Center performs both in-house research in transportation problems and also contacts for research, primarily with Universities in Louisiana, but also with other research entities within and outside the State.
Awards of the 7th WCTR in Sidney (Australia)
In Sidney (1995) the Prize Sub-Committee chaired by Professor Yoshi Hayashi, consisted of the following members selected by the Scientific Committee to represent a broad spectrum of the Society's geographic, academic and professional membership : Moshe BEN AKIVA (MIT, USA), Bruno FAIVRE D'ARCIER (INRETS & Univ. Lumière, F), Yoshitsugu HAYASHI (Nagoya University, Japan), Sue MCNEIL (Carnegie Mellon University, USA), Hisa MORISUGI (Gifu University, Japan), Tae OUM (Univ. of British Columbia, Canada), Robert RIVIER (EPFL, Switzerland), Cees RUIJGROK (Inst.for Spatial Organization, NL), Derek SCRAFTON (South Australian Govt., Australia), Michael TAYLOR (Univ. of South Austr., Australia), Michael WEGENER (Univ. of Dortmund, Germany).
The task of the sub committee was first to review the over one hundred papers recommended for prizes (long list) by referees. On a basis of originality, scientific merit, clarity and practical importance, a short list of a dozen papers was compiled, and from this, five prize winners were selected. It should be mentioned that we members of Prize Sub-Committee admit it was almost an impossible task to select the winners because the qualities of candidate papers were much higher than good papers appearing in major transport journals. One paper was part written by a committee member and was set aside for fairness.
Fabienne MARGAIL and Pascal AUZANNET (France)
"PLANIFICATION INTERMODALE DES RÉSEAUX DE TRANSPORT URBAIN DE VOYAGEURS" ("Urban Public Transport Network Intermodal Planning: a method for determining an optimal location of interchange sites for connections between private cars and public transport")
This paper presents an original approach of multimodality, through a detailed analysis of private and public costs induced by each transport mode. This research is based on a important work which identifies these costs and builds a global accounting system. This system is presently used as a means to assess multimodal transport policies in the Paris urban area. Through a comparison of each mode's economic and social efficiency, the authors highlight some counterintuitive results about the performance of cars and public transport and conclude their paper with a new way to organize urban transport networks, with respect to economic and social efficiency.
This paper analyses the impacts of inter-regional transport improvements on a system of cities and evaluates these impacts in terms of social welfare. The major implication from the analysis is that a policy of reducing transport costs by transport infrastructure improvements leads to a dispersed pattern of cities with high environmental externalities. The paper is a particularly innovative contribution to the important discussion about what constitutes a well-balanced nationwide settlement system. It is well written and clearly organized.
The paper describes an extended travel demand forecasting system, based on disaggregate models and incorporating many original features including interactions between household members and decisions leading to trip chaining. The jury appreciated the quality of the theoretical foundations, and the extensive effort that has been made to turn the system into a practical working tool.
- Ms Mitsuhashi also presented the Yokohama Special Prize for a young researcher. The prize was awarded to : Anming ZHANG (Canada)
"EFFECTS OF LOCAL COMPETITION IN HUB-SPOKE NETWORKS"
The paper analyzes the strategic competition between airlines who operate hub-and-spoke networks and concludes that the fortress hub is formed as a result of strategic interaction between competing airlines. The paper identifies negative network externality of competing in the rival airline's fortress hub, and shows that the entrance of a new carrier into an existing fortress hub may, in fact, reduce social welfare.
This paper develops an alternative conceptual framework for modelling intermodal freight systems and outlines a network implementation. The framework treats intermodalism as an influence of services which may be interpreted as logistical events. This approach directs attention away from linehaul and location and forwards intermodal transitions in the broadest sense. The framework developed is quite original and gives a basis for understanding logistical choice behaviour in a way to incorporate complex service and cost trade-offs involved in freight logistics management, which are not incorporated into conventional origin-destination traffic modelling.
is the creator of the transportation systems analysis paradigm that is universally
used by practitioners, researchers and educators. His original conceptual
developments have established the foundations for the major advances in transportation
management and analysis that have distinguished our profession during the
past three decades. His pioneering contributions span the most critical and
innovative areas of transportation planning and management. For many years
he has been at the forefront of research on the ramifications of the developments
in information technologies, and how they can affect organizational change
and management processes. He was also the driving force in the establishment
of WCTRS and served as a its first president. He is a dedicated scholar who
served as a mentor and a role model for many of us. In whatever he does, he
is one of the first; and after many years of service as a teacher, researcher
and consultant, he is still as active, energetic and enthusiastic as a freshly
Awards of the 8th WCTR in Antwerp (Belgium)
In Antwerp (1998) there were 4 permanent paper prizes (incl. WCTRS prize, Yokohama Prizes, Young researcher prize), 5 additional prizes to be awarded only at the 8th WCTR and one prize for distinguished scholar.
The Prize Sub-Committee chaired by YOSHITSUGU HAYASHI from Japan, consisted of the following members selected by the Scientific Committee. They represent a broad spectrum of the Society's geographic, academic and professional membership : PETER BONSALL from UK, ENNIO CASCETTA from Italy, BRUNO FAIVRE D'ARCIER from France, HANI MAHMASSANI from USA, SUE MCNEIL from USA, HISA MORISUGI from Japan, from TAE OUM Canada, ROBERT RIVIER from Switzerland, WERNER ROTHENGATTER from Germany, CESS RUIJGROK from Netherlands, ESSAM SHARAF from Egypt, ANTI TALVITIE from USA andFinland, MICHAEL TAYLOR from Australia, MICHAEL WEGENER from Germany.
Here is the resultat of the selection :
This paper is the first modeling effort for determining optimal mix of leased and owned aircraft, recognizing explicitly the uncertain and cyclical air nature of transport demand. It focuses on the role of 'leasing companies to increase flexibility in airlines' capacity changes. The model is applied to a panel data set of 23 major airlines of the world.
« Estimation of Dynamic Transport Demand Models Using Pseudo-Panel Data »
This paper presents a unique model of dynamic car ownership, based on a pseudo-panel approach
which entails grouping individuals or households into cohorts, in order to estimate the various short and long run elasticity. Focus is made on the difference in car ownership and its determining factors, using data from the annual UK Family Expenditure Surveys. The paper concludes on the need of time for adjustment to changes in prices and income, as elasticity is twice as great in the long run as it is in the short run.
« Scenario-wise Analysis of Transport and Logistics Systems with a SMILE »
This paper describes the model SMILE which stands for "Strategic Model for Infrastructure Logistics and Evaluation". This model has been constructed in order to enhance understanding of the developments and policy options regarding freight transport in the Netherlands. It is a unique model in the sense that it explicitly takes into account logistics developments and translates these tendencies, such as centralization of warehouses, higher frequencies and consolidation into freight demand characteristics.
- The DRTPC Prize was awarded to : Zhong-Zhen YANG, co-authored by Yoshitsugu HAYASHI
« Achieving Inter-city Balance of Urban Development by Coupling of Expressway Improvement and Land Price Policies in China »
This paper is original in that it considers the spatial mechanism of land market applying to China where land price is determined by the government and the land sales revenue is used for infrastructure improvement. A spatial model is designed to give an optimal land price as a tool for regional development policy to achieve a well balanced growth of economy between the cities within a province. This idea seems useful to promote a sustainable regional development avoiding serious traffic bottlenecks.
The 8th WCTR Prizes
« Strategic Airline Alliances: Complementary vs. Parallel Alliances »
This paper is unique in that it examines the effects of strategic alliances in a multi-firm, multi-market setting by using game theory. This general framework can be used for the analysis of alliances in any network oriented industries including the airline industry. Applications are made to trans-Atlantic strategic alliances.
« Maritime Transport as an Area of Competitive Advantage in International
The paper presents a general framework for identifying major factors for creating competitive advantage through improvement of the maritime sector in a country. It uses the Porter-model as a framework and price factor analysis of Turkey's driedfruits exporters in order to identify the main factors for determining quality of maritime logistics. The paper gives a well documented overview of the theory of creating regional competitive advantage. It is extremely usefull in applying these general principles into practice.
« Spatial (De)Concentration of Container Flows: The Development of Load Centre Ports and Inland Hubs in Europe »
This paper examines the European port system using the foreland-port-hinterland concept and studies whether the ports confirm to a stage-wise port development model formulated in the early sixties. The findings from the model suggests that containerization, other technological developments and the hinterland to port intermodal transport network create a complex port operation environment, where the forces for both port concentration and deconcentration are active. The outcome is determined by :
(i) the network connections of port to hinterland;
(ii) the managerial skills to provide services that attract mega-carriers' providing door-to-door transport services; and,
(iii) from the management's ability to finance and improve port and intermodal infrastructures.
« Comparative Study of Urban Mobility in Sub-Saharan and Asian Cities:
Issues and Priorities in Policy Formulation »
This paper addresses the issue of urban mobility, the factors affecting it and how efficient policy interventions can be derived. The authors' findings are based on cross-comparisons of the mobility trends of a target group in Indian and African cities under varying environments. They concluded that mobility levels and their qualitative characteristics depend not only on transport related factors but also on social, cultural and economic organization of the society. Further, there is a need for a homogeneous methodology in mobility surveys and the associated analyses to allow meaningful international comparisons.
This paper is the result of a long- standing research cooperation that started at CODATU V in New Delhi. In 1997, the French Ministery of Public Works funded Prof Sharma’s coming at LET (Laboratoire d’Economie des Transports) as a visiting professor.
« An Assessment of the JR Companies since Privatisation: Performance,
Local Rail Service and Depts »
This paper is an outstanding analysis of the reform of the Japan National Railways since 1987. It concludes that
(i) the productive efficiency has been improved since 1987 due to a flatter and more decentralized organization and improved labor productivity, as well as the strategic behavior of the JR's to develop rail ridership;
(ii) the service levels did not change appreciably after privatization, implying that the less profitable local services were not necessarily abandoned;
(iii) the lingering debt problem may not be a failure of privatization but a failure of government, and this may require immediate attention if the new found benefits are to be retained.
- The Permanent Prize for distinguished Scholar - Dupuit Prize was awarded to : Michel FRYBOURG
As a laureate of the Jules Dupuit Prize, Michel FRYBOURG is in a particular position because he is a graduate of the same Engineering School as Jules Dupuit (the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées) and he subsequently achieved the same position as his predecessor in the French Administration. Michel FRYBOURG is a key actor of the development of transport research in France, as the initiator and the first Director of the "Institut de Recherche sur les Transports (INRETS)", concerned with both physical and social science researches. His contribution (from the first initiative) to the WCTR Society was essential as member of the Steering Committee (and Chairman of the Scientific Committee for the 6th WCTR in Lyons). As Professor at the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, he published well-known books in Transport Economics. His own fields of research were always characterized by a strong presence on new topics and actual problems: traffic engineering and safety in the sixties, assessment of technologies in the seventies, integrated logistics in the eighties, added value networks in the nineties. In these different areas, his main contribution was to provide efficient bridges between the technical and the socio-economic aspects of transport.
In Seoul (2001), the Prize Award Sub-committee chaired by Professor Peter Bonsall announced the selection of two WCTR prizes, ‘2001 WCTR Prize’ open for all submitters and ‘2001 WCTR Young Prize’ only to authors under 35 years of age.
‘Model-Based Multi-class Travel Time Estimation’ by Serge P. Hoogendoorn and
‘Information Reference Model Considering Uncertainty in Decision-making’ by Eiji Hato.
In Istanbul (2004) the Prize Award Sub-committee chaired by Professor Yoshitsugu Hayashi gave four prizes : WCTRS Prize, WCTRS young Prize, DRTPC Prize and Dupuit Prize.
The Prize is donated by VIATEK through the good offices of Antti Talvitie. The Dupuit Prize Committee for the Istanbul Meeting 2004 waq chaired by Roger Vickerman, and consisted of Pierre Laconte and Yucel Candemir as members.
Given the worldwide membership of WCTRS and the number of people within WCTRS who satisfy most if not all of the criteria for the award it was not difficult to produce a shortlist of potential candidates for consideration, but reducing this to a single name might be thought to be a much more difficult task. However, it soon became clear that one name stood out from our short list as someone who did not just meet the criteria but met them significantly with a high reputation which crosses continents.
The Dupuit Prize for 2004 is awarded to Professor Hideo Nakamura for his outstanding lifetime contribution to transport research and his major contribution to the development of WCTRS and its activities during his Presidency.
Hideo Nakamura was born in 1935 in Kyoto and studied civil engineering at the University of Tokyo. After working on the construction of the Tokyo underground he became an assistant at Tokyo University before a first visit to Stuttgart in Germany began his global reach (not to mention a remarkable knowledge of German folk songs). On his return to Japan he rapidly became a major figure in transport planning and transport policy thus securing his reputation and fulfilling the first two of our criteria.
In transport engineering his particular contribution was the innovative application of photogrammetry to the design of motorway alignments, involving an early use of computer aided design. In transport planning his development of land-use transport models was applied to the analysis of the Tokyo Bay Bridge. He made major contributions to the introduction of scientific methods in policy making for transport infrastructure.
But he was never satisfied at just being involved on Japanese transport; he recognised the importance of global contact, of learning from others (and their mistakes) and putting forward a clear view of Japanese practice. This led to many International invitations and awards. On retiring from the University of Tokyo in 1995 he did not settle back into a quiet life but became the first president of the newly founded institute for transport Policy Studies in Tokyo, an institution which as well as undertaking research has regular seminars and symposia which involve transport professionals from all over the world as many members of WCTRS will know from personal experience. Criterion three is met many times over.
In 1989 Hideo Nakamura was the chair of the local organising committee of the WCTRS Conference in Yokohama and his quiet efficiency in this job made him a natural choice as President of WCTRS, a post which was he help from 1998 to 2001. Those involved with WCTRS during this period will recognise that Hideo Nakamura was not just a titular president but led WCTRS through a major period of change, not least of which was the adoption of Transport Policy as the Society’s journal. Criterion four, contribution to WCTRS, passed with flying colours.
At the time many people would be resting having retired from two senior positions, a rejuvenated Hideo Nakamura has now taken on the role of president of the Musashi Institute of Technology in Tokyo. But he is not lost us as he remains a member of the Steering Committee of WCTRS.
Many people could get quite high scores on our official criteria (though few could claim to score quite as highly on all four) but very few would command the respect as individuals as Hideo Nakamura does. A calm and quiet influence, but someone whose company it is a pleasure to share, a man of great warmth and humour as well as a respected scientist, a public figure of influence in Japan and across the worl and a major contributor to the development of WCTRS as we know it today.